The group research project focused on the validity of inner Mongol conflicts mentioned by Marco Polo in the sixth chapter of his The Description of the World – “Greater Turkey and the Mongol Wars”. Detailed investigations were conducted on conflicts between Qaidu-Kublai, Hulegu-Berke, Arghun-Ahmed, and Toqto‘a vs Noqai. It was concluded that, after intensive study by individual group members, there is enough evidence to support that the conflicts were real and well recorded.

Qaidu-Khubilai Conflicts (By Siyu Bi)

Qaidu was the Khan of the Chagadai Khanate during Khubilai’s time, succeeding the house of Ogedei. Initially supporting Boke, he was a believer of the nomadic lifestyle in opposition to Khubilai’s preference of settled society. Despite Khubilai’s efforts to repair relationships among the separate khanates, Qaidu was never satisfied with any pacification other than acquiring the position of Great Khan. His resentment remained as a constant trouble toward Khubilai from 1275 to his death in 1301.

Hulegu– Berke Conflict (By Catherine)

The Hulegu-Berke war was fought by the leader of the Golden Horde— Berke Khan and the lord of Ilkhanate— Hulegu Khan in 1262. The war mainly happened around the Caucasus mountain area. Many says that the Berke-Hulegu war was the first major civil war in the western Mongol Empire. Economic, religious, and political conflicts had accumulated for years between the two kings. Finally, the war started after the death of Mongke. 

Arghun – Ahmed conflict (By Dennis)

This section analyzed the rise to power of Ahmed through the origin of Hulagu, his father, and the legacy he left behind, which he then passed on to his son Abaqa who was later succeeded by his brother Ahmed. This section also analyzed the causes of conflict between Arghun and Ahmed, which was the difference in Buddhism and Islam. Ahmed’s pardon for his father’s supposed murderers fuelled the conflict even further as it led Arghun to seek alliances that threatened Ahmed’s authority and security. This led to Ahmed hunting down his nephew and going through extreme measures to capture him. This section also analyzed how the conflict occurred through the hunt of Arghun by his uncle Ahmed which came to an end upon the death of Ahmed and the rise to power by Arghun. The effects of this conflict was the legacy left behind by Arghun, who realized the misuse of the power of his appointed nobles. He, therefore, deposed them and replaced them with others who were more efficient and honorable. Therefore, the conflict between Arghun and Ahmed occurred and depicted that the Mongolian war occurred.


Succession Disputes in Ilkhanate (By Yuanjing Xu)

According to Marco Polo, the succession disputes in the Ilkhanate of Persia started with Abaqa’s death, which triggered a succession struggle between his son Arghun and his brother Ahmad. Ahmad had reigned for 2 years. After Arghun won the battle, he reigned for six years, from 1286 to 1292. When Arghun died of illness, an uncle of his, named Geikhatu, who was the brother of his father, Abaqa, took the lordship for two years. After Geikhatu dead due to drink, Baidu, who was his uncle and a Christian, took the lordship in the year 1293. In 1294, Ghazan, the son of Arghun, successfully beaten Baidu and began to reign and held the lordship.


The war between Toqto’a and Noqai (By Lily)

The research will focus on the war between Toqto’a and Noqai. The story was long and needed to be traced to 1290s. But the authenticity of these wars should be doubted: Were all events represent the truth? Were all the descriptions about these Mongol wars represent the facts?

Because of the conflict in succession, Tuda-Mengu killed Tole Buqa with the assistance from Noqai. The sons of Tole Buqa found Toqto’a to help their revengence on Noqai. However,there were other scholars doubted on the authenticity of the detail since the identity of the sons were not clear.



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